Nanette F. Santoro, MD

Professor and E. Stewart Taylor Chair
Divisions of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility & Reproductive Sciences
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology


MD (1979), Albany Medical College/RPI, Albany, NY

Academic Office 1
12631 East 17th Avenue
Room 4004, MS B198-1
Aurora, CO 80045

Phone: (303) 724-2041
Fax: (303) 724-2061

Research Interests
Dr. Santoro’s current research involves treatment of menopausal symptoms in women, understanding the mechanisms by which obesity causes relative infertility in women, clinical trials in reproductive medicine, and research training of Ob-Gyns and Reproductive Endocrinologists.. Her laboratory has specialized in the development and measurement of reproductive hormones using state-of-the-art methodologies. She developed techniques to perform field studies that allow for daily hormone assessments without the inconvenience of blood drawing by using urine sampling. She is past Chair of the Steering Committee for the Reproductive Medicine Network, and current PI with the CONFIRM network, both NIH funded clinical trials networks devoted to the study of problems in human reproduction.

Full List of Publications

Recent Publications

  1. Santoro N. Does Hormone Therapy Protect the Heart? It Is a Stressful Question. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 May 01; 105(5). PMID: 32215563.
  2. Finkelstein JS, Lee H, Karlamangla A, Neer RM, Sluss PM, Burnett-Bowie SM, Darakananda K, Donahoe PK, Harlow SD, Prizand SH, Joffe H, Kumar A, Martin DE, McConnell D, Merrilat S, Morrison A, Pastore LM, Randolph JF, Greendale GA, Santoro N. Antimullerian Hormone and Impending Menopause in Late Reproductive Age: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Apr 01; 105(4). PMID: 31965189.
  3. Fraser GL, Lederman S, Waldbaum A, Kroll R, Santoro N, Lee M, Skillern L, Ramael S. A phase 2b, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-ranging study of the neurokinin 3 receptor antagonist fezolinetant for vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. Menopause. 2020 04; 27(4):382-392. PMID: 32102086.
  4. Cortés YI, Barinas-Mitchell E, Suder Egnot N, Bhasin S, Jasuja R, Santoro N, Thurston RC. Associations of Endogenous Sex Hormones with Carotid Plaque Burden and Characteristics in Midlife Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Apr 01; 105(4). PMID: 31900485.
  5. Crandall CJ, Diamant A, Santoro N. Safety of vaginal estrogens: a systematic review. Menopause. 2020 03; 27(3):339-360. PMID: 31913230.
  6. El Khoudary SR, Venugopal V, Manson JE, Brooks MM, Santoro N, Black DM, Harman M, Hodis HN, Brinton EA, Miller VM, Taylor HS, Budoff MJ. Heart fat and carotid artery atherosclerosis progression in recently menopausal women: impact of menopausal hormone therapy: The KEEPS trial. Menopause. 2020 03; 27(3):255-262. PMID: 32015261.
  7. Wang ET, Diamond MP, Alvero R, Casson P, Christman GM, Coutifaris C, Hansen KR, Sun F, Legro RS, Robinson RD, Usadi RS, Pisarska MD, Santoro NF, Zhang H. Androgenicity and fertility treatment in women with unexplained infertility. Fertil Steril. 2020 Mar; 113(3):636-641. PMID: 32192596.
  8. Steiner AZ, Hansen KR, Barnhart KT, Cedars MI, Legro RS, Diamond MP, Krawetz SA, Usadi R, Baker VL, Coward RM, Huang H, Wild R, Masson P, Smith JF, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. The effect of antioxidants on male factor infertility: the Males, Antioxidants, and Infertility (MOXI) randomized clinical trial. Fertil Steril. 2020 Mar; 113(3):552-560.e3. PMID: 32111479.
  9. Santoro N, El Khoudary SR, Nasr A, Gold EB, Greendale G, McConnell D, Neal-Perry G, Pavlovic J, Derby C, Crawford S. Daily luteal serum and urinary hormone profiles in the menopause transition: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Menopause. 2020 02; 27(2):127-133. PMID: 31794501.
  10. Jones K, Ryan S, Carlson NE, Chosich J, Bradford AP, Santoro N, Polotsky AJ. Aromatase Inhibition Ameliorates Decreased LH Output Found in Obese Women. Reprod Sci. 2020 Apr; 27(4):1018-1023. PMID: 32046430.