Nanette F. Santoro, MD

Professor and E. Stewart Taylor Chair
Divisions of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility & Reproductive Sciences
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology


MD (1979), Albany Medical College/RPI, Albany, NY

Academic Office 1
12631 East 17th Avenue
Room 4004, MS B198-1
Aurora, CO 80045

Phone: (303) 724-2041
Fax: (303) 724-2061

Research Interests
Dr. Santoro’s current research involves treatment of menopausal symptoms in women, understanding the mechanisms by which obesity causes relative infertility in women, clinical trials in reproductive medicine, and research training of Ob-Gyns and Reproductive Endocrinologists.. Her laboratory has specialized in the development and measurement of reproductive hormones using state-of-the-art methodologies. She developed techniques to perform field studies that allow for daily hormone assessments without the inconvenience of blood drawing by using urine sampling. She is past Chair of the Steering Committee for the Reproductive Medicine Network, and current PI with the CONFIRM network, both NIH funded clinical trials networks devoted to the study of problems in human reproduction.

Full List of Publications

Recent Publications

  1. Verdiesen RMG, van der Schouw YT, van Gils CH, Verschuren WMM, Broekmans FJM, Borges MC, Gonçalves Soares AL, Lawlor DA, Eliassen AH, Kraft P, Sandler DP, Harlow SD, Smith JA, Santoro N, Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Murray A, Ruth KS, Onland-Moret NC. Genome-wide association study meta-analysis identifies three novel loci for circulating anti-Müllerian hormone levels in women. Hum Reprod. 2022 Mar 11:deac028. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35274129
  2. Legro RS, Hansen KR, Diamond MP, Steiner AZ, Coutifaris C, Cedars MI, Hoeger KM, Usadi R, Johnstone EB, Haisenleder DJ, Wild RA, Barnhart KT, Mersereau J, Trussell JC, Krawetz SA, Kris-Etherton PM, Sarwer DB, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Huang H, Zhang H; Reproductive Medicine Network. Effects of preconception lifestyle intervention in infertile women with obesity: The FIT-PLESE randomized controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2022 Jan 18;19(1):e1003883. PMID: 35041662
  3. El Khoudary SR, Qi M, Chen X, Matthews K, Allshouse AA, Crawford SL, Derby CA, Thurston RC, Kazlauskaite R, Barinas-Mitchell E, Santoro N. Patterns of menstrual cycle length over the menopause transition are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis after menopause. Menopause. 2021 Oct 11;29(1):8-15. PMID: 34636354
  4. Santoro N, Liss J. Compounded Bioidentical Hormones: Myths and Realities. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Dec 1;64(4):793-802. PMID: 34482337
  5. Santoro N, Schauer IE, Kuhn K, Fought AJ, Babcock-Gilbert S, Bradford AP. Gonadotropin response to insulin and lipid infusion reproduces the reprometabolic syndrome of obesity in eumenorrheic lean women: a randomized crossover trial. Fertil Steril. 2021 Aug;116(2):566-574. Epub 2021 Apr 8. PMID: 33838870
  6. Finkelstein JS, Lee H, Karlamangla A, Neer RM, Sluss PM, Burnett-Bowie SM, Darakananda K, Donahoe PK, Harlow SD, Prizand SH, Joffe H, Kumar A, Martin DE, McConnell D, Merrilat S, Morrison A, Pastore LM, Randolph JF, Greendale GA, Santoro N. Antimullerian Hormone and Impending Menopause in Late Reproductive Age: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Apr 01; 105(4). PMID: 31965189
  7. Cortés YI, Barinas-Mitchell E, Suder Egnot N, Bhasin S, Jasuja R, Santoro N, Thurston RC. Associations of Endogenous Sex Hormones with Carotid Plaque Burden and Characteristics in Midlife Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Apr 01; 105(4). PMID: 31900485
  8. Crandall CJ, Diamant A, Santoro N. Safety of vaginal estrogens: a systematic review. Menopause. 2020 03; 27(3):339-360. PMID: 31913230
  9. Steiner AZ, Hansen KR, Barnhart KT, Cedars MI, Legro RS, Diamond MP, Krawetz SA, Usadi R, Baker VL, Coward RM, Huang H, Wild R, Masson P, Smith JF, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. The effect of antioxidants on male factor infertility: the Males, Antioxidants, and Infertility (MOXI) randomized clinical trial. Fertil Steril. 2020 Mar; 113(3):552-560.e3. PMID: 32111479
  10. Santoro N, El Khoudary SR, Nasr A, Gold EB, Greendale G, McConnell D, Neal-Perry G, Pavlovic J, Derby C, Crawford S. Daily luteal serum and urinary hormone profiles in the menopause transition: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Menopause. 2020 02; 27(2):127-133. PMID: 31794501
  11. Santoro N, Johnson J. Diagnosing the Onset of Menopause. JAMA. 2019 Aug 27;322(8):775-776. PMID: 31329213


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