Picture of TRIAD Team

Translational Research, Innovation, & Antidote Development (TRIAD)

Our Mission

Our multidisciplinary team works collaboratively with researchers and clinicians around the world to bring lifesaving, innovative discoveries from the bench to the bedside. At TRIAD Research Colorado, we conduct clinically relevant, translational research studies to get newly discovered drugs and devices into the hands of first responders and clinicians.

Topic Interest & Scope

  • Work collaboratively with researchers and clinicians around the world 
  • Bring life-saving, innovative discoveries from the bench to the bedside 
  • Conduct clinically relevant, translational research studies to get newly discovered drugs and devices into the hands of first responders and clinicians

Research Priorities

  • Development of Novel Antidotes
  • Medical Countermeasures
  • Prehospital, En route, & Combat Casualty Care
  • Toxicology & Critical Care

Current Areas of Research

  • Innovative medical countermeasures against chemical threats
  • Novel therapies for inhaled occupational exposures   
  • Impactful treatment for critically ill drug overdoses
  • Pragmatic treatments for prehospital trauma and hemorrhage

Our Team

  • Aktiiv Pharma Group
  • Children’s Hospital Colorado
  • Denver Health
  • Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital
  • National Jewish Health
  • Penn State
  • Rocky Mountain Poison & Drug Center
  • Sam Houston State University
  • South Dakota State University
  • The University of Utah
  • US Air Force
  • US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense
  • UC Irvine
  • UC San Diego

  • American Academy of Clinical Toxicology
  • Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats Program, National Institutes of Health
  • Department of Defense
  • National Institutes of Health
  • National Jewish Health
  • UCHealth
  • University of Colorado
  • United States Air Force
  • United States Army

University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus

Aurora, CO 80045

Phone: 303-724-2063

Website: triadresearchcolorado.org


Lee KJ, McGuire MM, Harvey WC, Bianchi WD, Emerling AD, Reilly ER, Bebarta VS, Lopez JJ, Zarow GJ, Auten JD. Performance comparison of intraosseous devices and setups for infusion of whole blood in a cadaveric swine bone model. Am J Emerg Med. 2022 Apr;54:58-64. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2022.01.039. Epub 2022 Jan 25. PMID: 35123236.

FheNielson JR, Nath AK, Doane KP, Shi X, Lee J, Tippetts EG, Saha K, Morningstar J, Hicks KG, Chan A, Zhao Y, Kelly A, Hendry-Hofer TB, Witeof A, Sips PY, Mahon S, Bebarta VS, Davisson VJ, Boss GR, Rutter J, MacRae CA, Brenner M, Gerszten RE, Peterson RT. Glyoxylate protects against cyanide toxicity through metabolic modulation. Sci Rep. 2022 Mar 23;12(1):4982. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-08803-y. PMID: 35322094; PMCID: PMC8943054.

Chan A, Lee J, Bhadra S, Bortey-Sam N, Hendry-Hofer TB, Bebarta VS, Mahon SB, Brenner M, Logue B, Pilz RB, Boss GR. Development of sodium tetrathionate as a cyanide and methanethiol antidote. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2022 Mar;60(3):332-341. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2021.1953517. Epub 2021 Jul 30. PMID: 34328378; PMCID: PMC8800944.

Hendry-Hofer TB, Severance CC, Bhadra S, Ng PC, Soules K, Lippner DS, Hildenberger DM, Rhoomes MO, Winborn JN, Logue BA, Rockwood GA, Bebarta VS. Evaluation of aqueous dimethyl trisulfide as an antidote to a highly lethal cyanide poisoning in a large swine model. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2022 Jan;60(1):95-101. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2021.1935992. Epub 2021 Jun 18. PMID: 34142637


Ng PC, Hendry-Hofer TB, Brenner M, Mahon SB, Boss GR, Maddry JK, Bebarta VS. Efficacy of oral administration of sodium thiosulfate in a large, swine model of oral cyanide toxicity. J Med Toxicol. 2021 Jul;17(3):257-264. doi: 10.1007/s13181-021-00836-5. Epub 2021 Apr 5. PMID: 33821433; PMCID: PMC8206226.

Bhadra S, Bebarta VS, Hendry-Hofer TB, Lippner DS, Winborn JN, Rockwood GA, Logue BA. Analysis of the Soil Fumigant, Dimethyl Disulfide, in Swine Blood by Dynamic Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy. J Chromatogr A. 2021 Feb 8;1638:461856. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2020.461856. Epub 2020 Dec 29. PMID: 33485031.

Hendry-Hofer TB, Ng PC, McGrath AM, Soules K, Mukai DS, Chan A, Maddry JK, White CW, Lee J, Mahon SB, Brenner M, Boss GR, Bebarta VS. Intramuscular cobinamide as an antidote to methyl mercaptan poisoning. Inhal Toxicol. 2021 Jan;33(1):25-32. doi: 10.1080/08958378.2020.1866123. Epub 2020 Dec 26. PMID: 33356664; PMCID: PMC8063453.

Schauer SG, Ng PC, April MD, Hill GJ, Arana AA, Bebarta VS. Pediatric Prehospital Intraosseous Access During Combat Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2021 Jan 1;37(1):e21-e24. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000001818. PMID: 30893227.


Hendry-Hofer TB, Ng PC, McGrath AM, Mukai D, Brenner M, Mahon S, Maddry JK, Boss GR, Bebarta VS. Intramuscular aminotetrazole cobinamide as a treatment for inhaled hydrogen sulfide poisoning in a large swine model. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2020 Nov;1479(1):159-167. doi: 10.1111/nyas.14339. Epub 2020 Mar 31. PMID: 32233102.

Anderson KL, Morgan JD, Castaneda MG, Boudreau SM, Araña AA, Kohn MA, Bebarta VS. The Effect of Chest Compression Location and Occlusion of the Aorta in a Traumatic Arrest Model. J Surg Res. 2020 Oct;254:64-74. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2020.03.026. Epub 2020 May 15. PMID: 32417498.

Maddry JK, Paredes RM, Rebeles J, Olson G, Castaneda M, Canellis K, Ng PC, Bebarta VS. Efficacy of Intravenous Hydroxocobalamin for Treatment of Sodium Methanethiolate Exposure in a Swine Model (Sus scrofa) of Severe Methanethiol Toxicity. J Med Toxicol. 2020 Oct;16(4):388-397. doi: 10.1007/s13181-020-00767-7. Epub 2020 Apr 1. PMID: 32239422; PMCID: PMC7554292.

Heard K, Bebarta VS, Hoppe JA, Monte AA. Does administration of haloperidol or ketorolac decrease opioid administration for abdominal pain patients? A retrospective study. Am J Emerg Med. 2020 Mar;38(3):517-520. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2019.05.038. Epub 2019 May 22. PMID: 31138518; PMCID: PMC6937392.

Deatherage Kaiser BL, Jacobs JM, Schepmoes AA, Brewer HM, Webb-Robertson BM, Valtier S, Bebarta VS, Adkins JN. Assessment of the Utility of the Oral Fluid and Plasma Proteomes for Hydrocodone Exposure. J Med Toxicol. 2020 Jan;16(1):49-60. doi: 10.1007/s13181-019-00731-0. Epub 2019 Nov 1. PMID: 31677050; PMCID: PMC6942069.

Hendry-Hofer TB, Witeof AE, Ng PC, Mahon SB, Brenner M, Boss GR, Bebarta VS. Intramuscular sodium tetrathionate as an antidote in a clinically relevant swine model of acute cyanide toxicity. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2020 Jan;58(1):29-35. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2019.1602272. Epub 2019 Apr 22. PMID: 31008657.


Schauer SG, April MD, Naylor JF, Mould-Millman NK, Bebarta VS, Becker TE, Maddry JK, Ginde AA. Incidence of Hyperoxia in Combat Wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan: A Potential Opportunity for Oxygen Conservation. Mil Med. 2019 Dec 1;184(11-12):661-667. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usz125. PMID: 31141134.

Ng PC, Hendry-Hofer TB, Witeof AE, Brenner M, Mahon SB, Boss GR, Haouzi P, Bebarta VS. Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity: Mechanism of Action, Clinical Presentation, and Countermeasure Development. J Med Toxicol. 2019 Oct;15(4):287-294. doi: 10.1007/s13181-019-00710-5. Epub 2019 May 6. PMID: 31062177; PMCID: PMC6825067.

Douin DJ, Schauer SG, Anderson EL, Jones J, DeSanto K, Cunningham CW, Bebarta VS, Ginde AA. Systematic review of oxygenation and clinical outcomes to inform oxygen targets in critically ill trauma patients. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2019 Oct;87(4):961-977. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000002392. PMID: 31162333.

Ng PC, Hendry-Hofer TB, Witeof AE, Mahon SB, Brenner M, Boss GR, Bebarta VS. Efficacy of Oral Administration of Sodium Thiosulfate and Glycine in a Large, Swine Model of Oral Cyanide Toxicity. Ann Emerg Med. 2019 Sep;74(3):423-429. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2019.03.023. Epub 2019 May 9. PMID: 31080026.

Lee J, Rockwood G, Logue B, Manandhar E, Petrikovics I, Han C, Bebarta V, Mahon SB, Burney T, Brenner M. Correction to: Monitoring Dose Response of Cyanide Antidote Dimethyl Trisulfide in Rabbits Using Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy. J Med Toxicol. 2019 Apr;15(2):139. doi: 10.1007/s13181-018-0694-0. Erratum for: J Med Toxicol. 2018 Dec;14(4):295-305. PMID: 30607835; PMCID: PMC6441066.

Hendry-Hofer TB, Ng PC, Witeof AE, Mahon SB, Brenner M, Boss GR, Bebarta VS. A Review on Ingested Cyanide: Risks, Clinical Presentation, Diagnostics, and Treatment Challenges. J Med Toxicol. 2019 Apr;15(2):128-133. doi: 10.1007/s13181-018-0688-y. Epub 2018 Dec 11. PMID: 30539383; PMCID: PMC6441064.

Hendry-Hofer TB, Witeof AE, Lippner DS, Ng PC, Mahon SB, Brenner M, Rockwood GA, Bebarta VS. Intramuscular dimethyl trisulfide: efficacy in a large swine model of acute severe cyanide toxicity. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2019 Apr;57(4):265-270. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2018.1511800. Epub 2018 Oct 11. PMID: 30306816; PMCID: PMC6451663.

Ng PC, Hendry-Hofer TB, Garrett N, Brenner M, Mahon SB, Maddry JK, Haouzi P, Boss GR, Gibbons TF, Araña AA, Bebarta VS. Intramuscular cobinamide versus saline for treatment of severe hydrogen sulfide toxicity in swine. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2019 Mar;57(3):189-196. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2018.1504955. Epub 2018 Nov 15. PMID: 30430872; PMCID: PMC6540978.

Bebarta VS, Garrett N, Maddry JK, Arana A, Boudreau S, Castaneda M, Dixon P, Tanen DA. A prospective, randomized trial of intravenous hydroxocobalamin versus noradrenaline or saline for treatment of lipopolysaccharide-induced hypotension in a swine model. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2019 Mar;46(3):216-225. doi: 10.1111/1440-1681.13060. PMID: 30575111.

Morningstar J, Lee J, Hendry-Hofer T, Witeof A, Lyle LT, Knipp G, MacRae CA, Boss GR, Peterson RT, Davisson VJ, Gerszten RE, Bebarta VS, Mahon S, Brenner M, Nath AK. Intramuscular administration of hexachloroplatinate reverses cyanide-induced metabolic derangements and counteracts severe cyanide poisoning. FASEB Bioadv. 2019 Feb;1(2):81-92. doi: 10.1096/fba.1024. Epub 2018 Oct 8. PMID: 31355359; PMCID: PMC6660183.


Lee J, Rockwood G, Logue B, Manandhar E, Petrikovics I, Han C, Bebarta V, Mahon SB, Burney T, Brenner M. Monitoring Dose Response of Cyanide Antidote Dimethyl Trisulfide in Rabbits Using Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy. J Med Toxicol. 2018;14(4):295-305. Epub 2018/08/11. doi: 10.1007/s13181-018-0680-6. PubMed PMID: 30094773; PMCID: PMC6242791.

Bebarta VS, Garrett N, Boudreau S, Castaneda M. Intravenous Hydroxocobalamin Versus Hextend Versus Control for Class III Hemorrhage Resuscitation in a Prehospital Swine Model. Mil Med. 2018;183(11-12):e721-e9. Epub 2018/12/01. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usy173. PubMed PMID: 30500921.

Ng PC, Hendry-Hofer TB, Witeof AE, Brenner M, Mahon SB, Boss GR, Bebarta VS. Characterization of a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model of Oral Potassium Cyanide Intoxication. Comp Med. 2018;68(5):375-9. Epub 2018/09/14. doi: 10.30802/aalas-cm-18-000041. PubMed PMID: 30208987; PMCID: PMC6200030.

Judenherc-Haouz IA, Sonobe T, Bebarta VS, Haouzi P. On the Efficacy of Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation and Epinephrine Following Cyanide- and H2S Intoxication-Induced Cardiac Asystole. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2018;18(5):436-49. Epub 2018/04/13. doi: 10.1007/s12012-018-9454-2. PubMed PMID: 29644580; PMCID: PMC6126935.

Anderson KL, Fiala KC, Castaneda MG, Boudreau SM, Arana AA, Bebarta VS. Left ventricular compressions improve return of spontaneous circulation and hemodynamics in a swine model of traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest. The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2018;85(2):303-10. Epub 2018/04/04. doi: 10.1097/ta.0000000000001901. PubMed PMID: 29613954.

Sips PY, Shi X, Musso G, Nath AK, Zhao Y, Nielson J, Morningstar J, Kelly AE, Mikell B, Buys E, Bebarta V, Rutter J, Davisson VJ, Mahon S, Brenner M, Boss GR, Peterson RT, Gerszten RE, MacRae CA. Identification of specific metabolic pathways as druggable targets regulating the sensitivity to cyanide poisoning. PLoS One. 2018;13(6):e0193889. Epub 2018/06/08. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193889. PubMed PMID: 29879736.

Jiwani AZ, Bebarta VS, Cancio LC. Acquired methemoglobinemia after hydroxocobalamin administration in a patient with burns and inhalation injury. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2018;56(5):370-2. Epub 2017/10/04. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2017.1377838. PubMed PMID: 28969436.

Dart RC, Goldfrank LR, Erstad BL, Huang DT, Todd KH, Weitz J, Bebarta VS, Caravati EM, Henretig FM, Delbridge TR, Banner W, Schneider SM, Anderson VE. Expert Consensus Guidelines for Stocking of Antidotes in Hospitals That Provide Emergency Care. Ann Emerg Med. 2018;71(3):314-25.e1. Epub 2017/07/04. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2017.05.021. PubMed PMID: 28669553.


Bebarta VS, Garrett N, Brenner M, Mahon SB, Maddry JK, Boudreau S, Castaneda M, Boss GR. Efficacy of Intravenous Cobinamide Versus Hydroxocobalamin or Saline for Treatment of Severe Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model. Acad Emerg Med. 2017 Sep;24(9):1088-1098. doi: 10.1111/acem.13213. Epub 2017 Aug 9. PMID: 28472554.

Brenner M, Azer SM, Oh KJ, Han CH, Lee J, Mahon SB, Du X, Mukai D, Burney T, Saidian M, Chan A, Straker DI, Bebarta VS, Boss GR. Oral Glycine and Sodium Thiosulfate for Lethal Cyanide Ingestion. J Clin Toxicol. 2017;7(3). Epub 2017/09/05. doi: 10.4172/2167-7972.1000355. PubMed PMID: 28868209; PMCID: PMC5578424.

Bebarta VS, Brittain M, Chan A, Garrett N, Yoon D, Burney T, Mukai D, Babin M, Pilz RB, Mahon SB, Brenner M, Boss GR. Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Thiosulfate Are Effective Against Acute Cyanide Poisoning When Administered by Intramuscular Injection. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Jun;69(6):718-725.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.09.034. Epub 2016 Dec 29. PMID: 28041825; PMCID: PMC5446299.

Anderson KL, Castaneda MG, Boudreau SM, Sharon DJ, Bebarta VS. Left Ventricular Compressions Improve Hemodynamics in a Swine Model of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2017 Mar-Apr;21(2):272-280. doi: 10.1080/10903127.2016.1241328. Epub 2016 Dec 5. PMID: 27918847.


Lee J, Mahon SB, Mukai D, Burney T, Katebian BS, Chan A, Bebarta VS, Yoon D, Boss GR, Brenner M. The Vitamin B12 Analog Cobinamide Is an Effective Antidote for Oral Cyanide Poisoning. J Med Toxicol. 2016 Dec;12(4):370-379. doi: 10.1007/s13181-016-0566-4. Epub 2016 Sep 15. PMID: 27631586; PMCID: PMC5135677.

Bebarta VS, Garrett N, Boudreau S, Castaneda M. Intraosseous hydroxocobalamin versus intravenous hydroxocobalamin compared to intraosseous whole blood or no treatment for hemorrhagic shock in a swine model. Am J Disaster Med. 2015 Autumn;10(3):205-15. doi: 10.5055/ajdm.2015.0203. PMID: 26663304.

In the News

Loading items....

Emergency Medicine (SOM)

CU Anschutz

Leprino Building

12401 East 17th Avenue

7th Floor

Aurora, CO 80045


CMS Login