Picture of TRIAD Team

Translational Research, Innovation, & Antidote Development (TRIAD)

Topic Interest & Scope

  • Work collaboratively with researchers and clinicians around the world 
  • Bring life-saving, innovative discoveries from the bench to the bedside 
  • Conduct clinically relevant, translational research studies to get newly discovered drugs and devices into the hands of first responders and clinicians
Research Priorities
  • Development of Novel Antidotes
  • Medical Countermeasures
  • Prehospital, En route, & Combat Casualty Care
  • Toxicology & Critical Care

Current Areas of Research

  • Innovative medical countermeasures against chemical threats
  • Novel therapies for inhaled occupational exposures   
  • Impactful treatment for critically ill drug overdoses
  • Pragmatic treatments for prehospital trauma and hemorrhage
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Our Team


Picture of Tara Hendry-Hofer

Tara Hendry-Hofer, RN

Picture of Patrick Ng

Patrick Ng, MD

Picture of Christoper Pitotti

Christopher Pitotti, MD

Picture of Carter Severance

Carter Severance, BS

  • South Dakota State University
  • Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital
  • Penn State
  • Sam Houston State University
  • UC San Diego
  • UC Irvine
  • The University of Utah
  • US Air Force
  • US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense
  • Rocky Mountain Poison & Drug Center
  • Children’s Hospital Colorado
  • Denver Health
  • National Jewish Health
  • University of Colorado
  • National Institutes of Health
  • Department of Defense
  • United States Army
  • United States Air Force
  • CytoSorbents
  • Denver Health
  • National Jewish Health
  • UCHealth
  • American Academy of Clinical Toxicology
  • Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats Program, National Institutes of Health
Douin DJ, Schauer SG, Anderson EL, Jones J, DeSanto K, Cunningham CW, Bebarta VS, Ginde AA. Systematic review of oxygenation and clinical outcomes to inform oxygen targets in critically ill trauma patients. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2019; 87(4):961-977. doi: 10.30802/aalas-cm-18-000041. PubMed PMID: 30208987; PubMed PMID: 31162333

Ng PC, Hendry-Hofer TB, Witeof AE, Mahon SB, Brenner M, Boss GR, Bebarta VS. Efficacy of Oral Administration of Sodium Thiosulfate and Glycine in a Large, Swine Model of Oral Cyanide Toxicity. Ann Emerg Med. 2019; 74(3):423-429. Epub 2019/05/09. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2019.03.023. PubMed PMID: 31080026.

Maddry JK, Arana AA, Perez CA, Medellin KL, Paciocco JA, Mora AG, Holder WG, Davis WT, Herson P, Bebarta VS. Influence of Time to Transport to a Higher Level Facility on the Clinical Outcomes of US Combat Casualties with TBI: A Multicenter 7-Year Study. Mil Med. 2019. Epub 2019/07/23. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usz178. PubMed PMID: 31334769.

Savell SC, Arana AA, Medellin KL, Bebarta VS, Perez CA, Reeves LK, Mora AG, Maddry JK. Descriptive Analysis of Cardiac Patients Transported by Critical Care Air Transport Teams. Mil Med. 2019; 184(7-8):e288-e295. Epub 2019/07/01. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usy426. PubMed PMID: 30811531.

Schauer SG, April MD, Naylor JF, Mould-Millman NK, Bebarta VS, Becker TE, Maddry JK, Ginde AA. Incidence of Hyperoxia in Combat Wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan: A Potential Opportunity for Oxygen Conservation. Mil Med. 2019. Epub 2019/05/29. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usz125. PubMed PMID: 31141134.

Heard K, Bebarta VS, Hoppe JA, Monte AA. Does administration of haloperidol or ketorolac decrease opioid administration for abdominal pain patients? A retrospective study. Am J Emerg Med. 2019. Epub 2019/05/22. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2019.05.038. PubMed PMID: 31138518

Ng PC, Hendry-Hofer TB, Witeof AE, Brenner M, Mahon SB, Boss GR, Haouzi P, Bebarta VS. Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity: Mechanism of Action, Clinical Presentation, and Countermeasure Development. J Med Toxicol. 2019. Epub 2019/05/06. doi: 10.1007/s13181-019-00710-5. PubMed PMID: 31062177

Maddry JK, Ball EM, Cox DB, Flarity KM, Bebarta VS. En Route Resuscitation - Utilization of CCATT to Transport and Stabilize Critically Injured and Unstable Casualties. Mil Med. 2019; 184(5-6):e172-e176. Epub 2018/12/12. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usy371. PubMed PMID: 30535030.

Schauer SG, Naylor JF, April MD, Fisher AD, Cunningham CW, Fernandez JRD, Shreve BP, Bebarta VS. Prehospital Resuscitation Performed on Hypotensive Trauma Patients in Afghanistan: The Prehospital Trauma Registry Experience. Mil Med. 2019; ;184(5-6):e154-e157. Epub 2018/10/09. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usy252. PubMed PMID: 30295843.

Anderson KL, Mora AG, Bloom AD, Maddry JK, Bebarta VS. Cardiac massage for trauma patients in the battlefield: An assessment for survivors. Resuscitation. 2019;138:20-27. Epub 2019/02/27. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2019.02.029. PubMed PMID: 30825551

Hendry-Hofer TB, Witeof AE, Ng PC, Mahon SB, Brenner M, Boss GR, Bebarta VS. Intramuscular sodium tetrathionate as an antidote in a clinically relevant swine model of acute cyanide toxicity. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2019:1-7. Epub 2019/04/22. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2019.1602272. PubMed PMID: 31008657

Hendry-Hofer TB, Witeof AE, Lippner DS, Ng PC, Mahon SB, Brenner M, Rockwood GA, Bebarta VS. Intramuscular dimethyl trisulfide: efficacy in a large swine model of acute severe cyanide toxicity. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2019; 57(4):265-270. Epub 2018/10/11. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2018.1511800. PubMed PMID: 30306816; PMCID: PMC6451663.

Hendry-Hofer TB, Ng PC, Witeof AE, Mahon SB, Brenner M, Boss GR, Bebarta VS. A Review on Ingested Cyanide: Risks, Clinical Presentation, Diagnostics, and Treatment Challenges. J Med Toxicol. 2019; 15(2):128-133. Epub 2018/12/11. doi: 10.1007/s13181-018-0688-y. PubMed PMID: 30539383; PMCID: PMC6441064.

Schauer SG, Ng PC, April MD, Hill GJ, Arana AA, Bebarta VS. Pediatric Prehospital Intraosseous Access During Combat Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2019. Epub 2019/03/19. doi: 10.1097/pec.0000000000001818. PubMed PMID: 30893227

Bebarta VS, Garrett N, Maddry JK, Arana A, Boudreau S, Castaneda M, Dixon P, Tanen DA. A prospective, randomized trial of intravenous hydroxocobalamin versus noradrenaline or saline for treatment of lipopolysaccharide-induced hypotension in a swine model. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2019;46(3):216-225. doi: 10.1111/1440-1681.13060. PubMed PMID: 30575111.

Ng PC, Hendry-Hofer TB, Garrett N, Brenner M, Mahon SB, Maddry JK, Haouzi P, Boss GR, Gibbons TF, Arana AA, Bebarta VS. Intramuscular cobinamide versus saline for treatment of severe hydrogen sulfide toxicity in swine. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2019; 57(3):189-196. Epub 2018/11/15. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2018.1504955. PubMed PMID: 30430872; PMCID: PMC6540978.

Lairet J, Bebarta VS, Maddry JK, Reeves L, Mora A, Blackbourne L, Rasmussen T. Prehospital Interventions Performed in Afghanistan Between November 2009 and March 2014. Mil Med. 2019;184(Suppl 1):133-137. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usy311. PubMed PMID: 30901391

Hardy G, Maddry JK, Ng PC, Savell SC, Arana AA, Kester A, Bebarta VS. Impact of prehospital airway management on combat mortality. Am J Emerg Med. 2019; 37(2):349-350. Epub 2018/06/22. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2018.06.052. PubMed PMID: 29958744.

Betz ME, Bebarta VS, DeWispelaere W, Barrett W, Victoroff M, Williamson K, Abbott D. Emergency Physicians and Firearms: Effects of Hands-on Training. Ann Emerg Med. 2019;73(2):210-211. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2018.11.034. PubMed PMID: 30661538

Morningstar J, Lee J, Hendry-Hofer T, Witeof A, Lyle LT, Knipp G, MacRae CA, Boss GR, Peterson RT, Davisson VJ, Gerszten RE, Bebarta VS, Mahon S, Brenner M, Nath AK. Intramuscular administration of hexachloroplatinate reverses cyanide-induced metabolic derangements and counteracts severe cyanide poisoning. FASEB Bioadv. 2019;1(2):81-92. Epub 2018/10/08. doi: 10.1096/fba.1024. PubMed PMID: 31355359; PMCID: PMC6660183. 

Full list of publications

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