A key aspect of any translational research program aimed at developing new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and other disorders is the identification of improved diagnostic measures. Every cell in the body secretes fragments of itself, termed exosomes, which can be isolated from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These include exosomes from cells in the brain. Thus, taking a small sample of blood can be similar to taking a brain biopsy, and it allows a non-invasive window into the brain and its pathologies. Specifically, we are working on ways to isolate exosomes from the blood that are secreted by each of the cell types in the brain, including neurons, in order to detect, for example, AD pathology, before it can be measured in any other manner.