Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases risk for later development of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and obesity with known sex differences in both human and animal models. Formerly IUGR infants are often recommended to consume high calorie, high fat complementary solid foods to promote catch-up growth, without acknowledging that excess weight gain increases risk for elevated body fat, decreased lean muscle mass and increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome during adult life. Dr. Gilley's Ludeman Center seed grant study tests whether a high fat, high sugar diet compounds morbidity in formerly IUGR mice and whether males and females respond differently to these two biologic insults. We will explore differences in body composition, energy expenditure, glucose tolerance and host-microbial interactions in adult mice who experienced IUGR. More long-term we plan to translate these findings into a study of human infants with IUGR and determine whether postnatal nutritional counseling should account for in utero growth.